In the last article you saw what is deep web and why is it called an illegal web even it is not
I want to clarify the confusion here “What is the difference between dark web and deep web “
Dark web refers to the part of deep web which actually contains the illegal things , and more people actually confused between these to and called both are same
HOW TO ACCESS DEEP WEB
As i already said in my previous article , To access deep web contents you need special softwares and proxies without those softwares you cannot access deep web contents
so what are those softwares which are used to access deep web contents
- TOR ( The Onion Router )
- i2p ( The Invisible Internet Project)
in this article , we will look in deep into TOR(The Onion Router)
TOR ( The Onion Router )
The Tor network is a group of volunteer-operated servers that allows people to improve their privacy and security on the Internet. Tor’s users employ this network by connecting through a series of virtual tunnels rather than making a direct connection, thus allowing both organizations and individuals to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy. Along the same line, Tor is an effective censorship circumvention tool, allowing its users to reach otherwise blocked destinations or content. Tor can also be used as a building block for software developers to create new communication tools with built-in privacy features.
The core principle of tor “onion routing” was developed in the mid-1990s by United States Naval Research Laboratory employees with the purpose of protecting U.S. intelligence communications online .
The alpha version of “The Online Routing ” project or The TOR project , 20 September 2002 and it was made public on 13 August 2004
In 2004 , the Naval Research Laboratory released the code for Tor under a free license
from December 2006 , tor project is online running with the majority of funding from US Government
At the time of writing this article , current version of tor is 6.0.6
WHY WE NEED TOR ?
Tor protects one against a common form of internet survelliance called “traffic analysis“
traffic analysis is used to infer who is talking to whom over a public network. knowing the source and destination of internet traffic allows others to track behaviour and interests
HOW DOES TRAFFIC ANALYSIS WORKS ?
Internet data packets have two parts: a data payload and a header used for routing. The data payload is whatever is being sent, whether that’s an email message, a web page, or an audio file. Even if you encrypt the data payload of your communications, traffic analysis still reveals a great deal about what you’re doing and, possibly, what you’re saying. That’s because it focuses on the header, which discloses source, destination, size, timing, and so on.
A basic problem for the privacy minded is that the recipient of your communications can see that you sent it by looking at headers. So can authorized intermediaries like Internet service providers, and sometimes unauthorized intermediaries as well. A very simple form of traffic analysis might involve sitting somewhere between sender and recipient on the network, looking at headers.
But there are also more powerful kinds of traffic analysis. Some attackers spy on multiple parts of the Internet and use sophisticated statistical techniques to track the communications patterns of many different organizations and individuals. Encryption does not help against these attackers, since it only hides the content of Internet traffic, not the headers.
SOLUTIONS : A DISTRIBUTED , ANONYMOUS NETWORK
Once connected with the tor , tor encrypts your data in various levels before reaching into the destination and assigning new ip addresses at each level
The Tor has three nodes The Entry Node , The Relay Node and The Exit Node
The request from the tor client will be encrypted and reaches into The Entry Node , the encrypted request is decrypted in this node and assigned with the new ip address(masking the original ip address) and again encrypted and sent to The Relay Node , The request recieved from the The Entry Node is decrypted in the relay node , assigned with the new ip address and again encrypted and sent to The Exit node , the same decryption , assigning new ip address continues here too but the request will not be encrypted here it will be a plain text and it reaches the destination
Each Node can decrypt only the request which came from its preceding node
example : The exit node cant decrypt the request from entry node , entry node request can only be decrypted by the relay node
HOW TO ACCESS DEEP WEB CONTENTS USING TOR ?
- Download tor software for windows , linux or mac from here
- Follow the install instructions for your OS
- once installed , run the tor browser
- The browser should look like the following
- If you get the same webpage on your tor browser “Congratulations !! , you are ready to access deep web contents “
- In the url tab paste this “http://3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion”
- Now you accessed duckduckgo search engine hosted in deep web
more about tor and accessing deep web
continued in next part DEEP WEB – INTRODUCTION 3